This is a permanent mold casting where molten metal is guided through the runner and gating system into the die cavity using the concept of gravity or employing external pressures which may vary between 10-100 KPa to as high as 150 MPa.
Therefore, die casting technique is divided into the following categories:
- Gravity die casting, GDC, metal head height and gravitational force to carry molten metal through the runner /gates into the die cavity
- Low pressure die casting, LPDC, 10-100 KPa (0.1-1.0 bar)
- High pressures die casting, HPDC
The application of pressure ensures proper die filling and thus guarantees the fabrication of thin sections. As for instance, it is possible to manufacture castings as thin as 1 mm of Al-Si alloys in case of high-pressure die casting. Die casting process is widely used to cast aluminum automotive components, such as wheels and cylinder heads, in large volumes.
In order to manufacture sound castings, it is vitally important to understand the mechanics of the process as well as the fundamentals of solidification science together with the specific characteristics of the alloy being cast. Therefore, parameters such as die temperature, die coating, injection velocity, the flow characteristics of incoming molten metal and the die design itself may affect the integrity of the finished product.
The main areas of research and development in die casting are as follows:
- mechanics of die casting
- alloy development
- application of computer software packages.
The expected outcomes should be:
- Improved casting integrity
- Improved die casting alloys
- Increased die life
- Improved quality and lead times through process simulation
- Implementation of high integrity casting technology
For more information on die casting, GDC, LPDC, HC-HPDC and CC-HPDC, please contact us.